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Wednesday, September 5, 2012

Computer Science

In it's most general sense,computer science (CS) is the study of computation and information processing,both in hardware and in software.In practice,computer science includes a variety of topics relating to computers,which range from the abstract analysis of algorithms to more concrete subjects like programming languages,software and computer software.As a scientific discipline,it differs significantly from mathematics,programming,software engineering,although these fields are often confused.

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Computer Hardware:-
Hardware is a comprehensive term for all of the physical parts of a computer,as distinguished from the data it contains or operates on,and the software that provides instruction for the hardware to accomplish tasks.The boundary between hardware and software is slightly blurry-firmware is software that is "built-in" to the hardware but such firmware is usually the province of computer programming  and computer engineers in any case and not an issue that computer users need to concern themselves with.
                                     A typical computer (Personal Computer,PC) contains in a desktop or tower case the following parts.

  • Motherboard which holds the CPU,main memory and other parts,and has slots for expansion cards.
  • Power supply- a case that holds transformer,voltage control and fan.
  • Storage controllers of IDE,SCSI or other tupe,that control hard disk-floopy disk,CD-Rom and other drives:the controllers sit directly on the motherboard (onboard) or one expansion cards.
  • Graphics controller that produces the output for the monitor.
  • The hard disk,floppy disk and other drives for mass storage.
  • Interface controllers (Parallel,serial,USB.Firewire)to connect the computer to external peripheral devices such as printers of scanners
Computer Software:-
Software is a generic term for organized collections of code representing instructions executed by a computer.Software is often written first as source code and then converted to a binary format that is specific to the device on which the code will be executed.
                  Software for personal computers is often broken into two major categories : system software that provides the basic non-task-specific functions of the computer and application software used to accomplish specific user-oriented tasks.





System Software:-
System software is responsible for controlling,integrating and managing the individual hardware components of a computer system so that other software and the users of the system see it as a function unit without having to be concerned with the low-level details such as transferring data from memory to disk or rendering text onto a display.Generally,system software consists of an operating system and some fundamental utilities such as disk formatters,files,managers,display managers,text editors,user authentication (login) and management tools and networking and device control software..!


Application software:-
Application software,on the other hand,is used to accomplish specific tasks other than just naming the computer software.Application software may consists of a single program,such as an image viwwer:a small connection of programs (often called a software package) that work closely together to accomplish a task,such as a spreadsheet or text processing system:a larger collection (often called a software suit) of related but independent programs and packages that have a common user interface or shared data format,such as Microsoft Office,which consists of a closely integrated word processor,spreadsheet,database etc. : or a software system,such as a database management system,which is a collection of fundamental programs that may provide some service to a variety of other independent application...!!

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